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Sign in. Get started. Introduction to Artificial Intelligence. Meruja Selvamanikkam Follow. See responses 1. Discover Medium. Make Medium yours. Conventional AI. Computational Intelligence CI. Conventional AI :-Conventional AI mostly involves methods now classified as machine learning, characterized byformalism and statistical analysis. Methods include:Expert systems: apply reasoning capabilities to reach a conclusion. An expert system can process largeamounts of known information and provide conclusions based on them. Computational Intelligence CI :-Computational Intelligence involves iterative development or learning e.
Learning is based on empirical data and is associated with non-symbolic AI,scruffy AI and soft computing. Methods include:Neural networks: systems with very strong pattern recognition capabilities. Fuzzy systems: techniques for reasoning under uncertainty, has been widely used in modern industrialand consumer product control systems.
Evolutionary computation: applies biologically inspired concepts such as populations, mutation andsurvival of the fittest to generate increasingly better solutions to the problem. These methods mostnotably divide into evolutionary algorithms e. Typical problems to which AI methods are applied :-Pattern recognitiono Optical character recognitiono Handwriting recognitiono Speech recognitiono Face recognitionNatural language processing, Translation and Chatter botsNon-linear control and RoboticsComputer vision, Virtual reality and Image processing The human brainis just such a complex organisation which qualifies for cybernetic study.
It has allthe characteristics of feedback, storage, etc. The integration of different learning andadaptation techniques, to overcome individual limitations and achieve synergeticeffects through hybridization or fusion of these techniques, has in recent yearscontributed to a emergence of large number of new superior class of intelligenceknown as Hybrid Intelligence.
Rather than being model based,it is experiential based. It uses mostrecent experiences or evidence to improve its performance through a variety oflearning schemas, that for practical implementation must demonstrate rapidlearning convergence, be temporally stable, be robust to parameter changes andinternal and external disturbances. Although automatedreasoning is considered a sub-field of artificial intelligence, it also hasconnections with theoretical computer science, and even philosophy. Its dual goals are: Cognitive robotics.
Developmental robotics:-Developmental Robotics DevRob , sometimes called epigenetic robotics, is amethodology that uses metaphors from neural development and developmentalpsychology to develop the mind for autonomous robots. The program that simulates the functions of genome to develop a robots mentalcapabilities is called a developmental program. AAAI also aims to increase publicunderstanding of artificial intelligence, improve the teaching and training of AI practitioners, andprovide guidance for research planners and funders concerning the importance and potential of currentAI developments and future directions.
IArtificial intelligence has been used in a wide range of fields including medical diagnosis, stocktrading, robot control, law, scientific discovery and toys.
Why research AI safety?
Hospitals and medicine:-A medical clinic can use artificial intelligence systems to organize bed schedules,make a staff rotation, and provide medical information. Artificial neural networks are used as clinical decision support systems formedical diagnosis, such as in Concept Processing technology in EMR software. Other tasks in medicine that can potentially be performed by artificial intelligenceinclude:Computer-aided interpretation of medical images.
Such systems help scandigital images, e. A typicalapplication is the detection of a tumor. Heart sound analysis. Heavy industry:-Robots have become common in many industries. They are often given jobs thatare considered dangerous to humans. Robots have proven effective in jobs that arevery repetitive which may lead to mistakes or accidents due to a lapse inconcentration and other jobs which humans may find degrading.
Differences Between Artificial Intelligence vs Human Intelligence
Game Playing :-This prospered greatly with the Digital Revolution, and helped introduce people,especially children, to a life of dealing with various types of Artificial Intelligence There is some AI in them, but they play well against people mainlythrough brute force computation--looking at hundreds of thousands of positions.
The internet is the best example were one can buy machine and play variousgames. Speech Recognition :-In the s, computer speech recognition reached a practical level for limitedpurposes. Thus United Airlines has replaced its keyboard tree for flightinformation by a system using speech recognition of flight numbers and citynames.
It is quite convenient. On the other hand, while it is possible to instructsome computers using speech, most users have gone back to the keyboard and themouse as still more convenient. Understanding Natural Language :-Just getting a sequence of words into a computer is not enough. Parsing sentencesis not enough either. The computer has to be provided with an understanding ofthe domain the text is about, and this is presently possible only for very limiteddomains. Some useful programs canwork solely in two dimensions, but full computer vision requires partial three-dimensional information that is not just a set of two-dimensional views.
Atpresent there are only limited ways of representing three-dimensional informationdirectly, and they are not as good as what humans evidently use.
Top 20 Recent Research Papers on Machine Learning and Deep Learning
Howwell this works depends on whether the intellectual mechanisms required for thetask are within the present state of AI. One of the first expert systems wasMYCIN in , which diagnosed bacterial infections of the blood and suggestedtreatments. It did better than medical students or practicing doctors, provided itslimitations were observed. Heuristic Classification :-One of the most feasible kinds of expert system given the present knowledge ofAI is to put some information in one of a fixed set of categories using severalsources of information.
An example is advising whether to accept a proposedcredit card purchase. Information is available about the owner of the credit card,his record of payment and also about the item he is buying and about theestablishment from which he is buying it e. The feasibility of this isdemonstrated by tentative hippocampus experiments in rats There are two major projects aimingfor human brain simulation, CCortex and IBM Blue Brain.
IWe conclude that if the machine could successfully pretend to be human to a knowledgeableobserver then you certainly should consider it intelligent.
AI systems are now in routine use in variousfield such as economics, medicine, engineering and the military, as well as being built into manycommon home computer software applications, traditional strategy games etc. AI is an exciting and rewarding discipline.
AI is branch of computer science that isconcerned with the automation of intelligent behavior. The revised definition of AI is - AI isthe study of mechanisms underlying intelligent behavior through the construction and evaluationof artifacts that attempt to enact those mechanisms. So it is concluded that it work as an artificialhuman brain which have an unbelievable artificial thinking power.
In Edward N. Zalta, editor, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Fall You just clipped your first slide!